European Journal of Anatomy

Official Journal of The Spanish Society of Anatomy
Cover Volume 23 - Number 3
Eur J Anat, 23 (3): 151-158 (2019)

Chronic inhalation of 2,2-dichlorovinyl dimethyl phosphate (DDVP) induces organ pathology in the adult albino rats

John O. Ogunsola1, Olayinka A. Oridupa2, Kehinde O. Awotunsin2, Adebowale B. Saba2

1Veterinary Teaching Hospital, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria, 2Department of Veterinary Pharmacology and Toxicology, University of Ibadan, Ibadan, Nigeria

ABSTRACT The acute toxic effects of the acetyl cholinesterase-inhibiting pesticide, DDVP, following oral and dermal exposure are well recorded in literature. The ability of DDVP to easily vaporize makes the aero-nasal route a possible means of exposure, albeit chronically. This study aimed to describe the pathology, if any, of the heart, kidney and liver following chronic exposure to various concentrations of DDVP via inhalation.Sixty male Wistar rats were divided into 6 groups (A-F) of 10 rats each. Rats in Group A were exposed to distilled water only, while rats in groups B, C, D, E and F were exposed to 20, 40, 60, 80 and 100% v/v concentrated fumes of DDVP respectively. Duration of inhalational exposure was for 90 days. The heart, liver and kidney of the rats in the groups were extracted for routine histopathology. Organ pathologies were semi-quantitatively scored and analyzed across and between the 6 groups.Generally, lesions were of progressive severity with increasing concentrations of DDVP. Across the organs, pathology was related to altered vascular and degenerative changes. Specifically, the heart, kidney and liver showed shredding of cardiomyocytes, sloughing of renal tubular epithelial cells with dilated tubular lumina, and hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis respectively. Inflammatory changes were limited to the livers of rats exposed to 80 and 100% v/v DDVP.It was concluded that DDVP induced altered vascular and degenerative changes following chronic exposure via inhalation. Safer alternatives to aerosolized DDVP-containing insecticides are recommended for the control of arthropod vectors in enclosures.

Keywords: Dichlorvos Heart Histopathology Kidney Liver Vascular changes

European Journal of anatomy
ISSN 2340-311X (Online)