European Journal of Anatomy

Official Journal of The Spanish Society of Anatomy
Cover Volume 23 - Number 1
Eur J Anat, 23 (1): 65-76 (2019)

Heavy metals obtained from waterways induced neurodegeneration in the prefrontal cortex of Wistar rats

Temidayo D. Adeniyi1, Peter U. Achukwu2, Abdulazeez A. Abubakar3, Adedayo D. Adekomi4

1Department of Medical Laboratory Science, School of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Pure and Applied Sciences, Kwara State University, Malete, Kwara state, Nigeria, 2Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Health Science and Technology, College of Medicine, University of Nigeria, Enugu Campus, Enugu state, Nigeria, 3Department of Medical Laboratory Science, Faculty of Allied Health Sciences, University of Medical Sciences, Ondo city, Ondo State, Nigeria, 4Department of Anatomy, Faculty of Basic Medical Sciences, College of Health Sciences, Osun State University, Osogbo, Osun State, Nigeria

ABSTRACT The level of heavy metals in Nigeria waterways is grossly influenced by the irrepressible disposal and recycling of electronic waste. The impact of heavy metals obtained from waterways on the prefrontal cortex of experimental rats was investigated in this study. Thirty (30) adult male Wistar rats weighing about 150-180 g were used in this study. Ten rats apiece were assigned randomly into three groups. Pooled sampled water and water containing the highest average concentration of combined heavy metals recorded in the waterways was given to the Wistar rats within the treatment groups ad libitum for 65 days. Blood sera were obtained for analysis of oxidative stress markers. The prefrontal cortex was processed for paraffin embedding, and sections stained for histological, histochemical and immunochemical evaluations. P < 0.05 was regarded as significant for data using one-way analysis of variance. Oxidative damage was observed in animals from the treatment groups when compared to the control. The analysed levels of oxidative stress markers showed statistically significant differences, except between groups given pooled sampled water and combined metals. Neurodegeneration was attested from the histological and histochemical evaluations, and the immunohistochemical evaluation revealed marked astrocytosis with induced oxidative stress while comparing the experimental groups.

Keywords: Electronic-waste Heavy metals Neurodegeneration Waterways

European Journal of anatomy
ISSN 2340-311X (Online)